A see-through galaxy questions the need for dark matter

3_28_Milky Way

They see how they interact with the rest of the universe.

Take galaxies, those giant, spinning masses of stars.

" It stood apart to us as a result of the exceptional comparison in between its look in Dragonfly photos and also Sloan Digital Sky Survey information", the writers of the paper explaining the item create.

Working with the speeds at which these clusters of stars were moving, they were able to calculate the mass of DF2.

"The idea that our universe is filled with a mysterious substance called "dark matter" which doesn't emit or absorb light has gained traction in astronomy since the mid-20th century", says Dr. Nathalie Ouellette, an astronomer from Queens University, who was not involved in the study. The theoretical WIMPs are thought to be the main component of dark matter.

The research team, led by scientists at Yale, describes the study of a far-off galaxy called NGC 1052-DF2. Previously, the team took a look at other galaxies with similar properties and the same class as NGC-1052-DF2, discovering that they nearly entirely consisted of dark matter. The researchers then set about measuring the movements of the clusters as a way to estimate the galaxy's total mass.

The discovery of NGC1052-DF2 will hopefully go a long way in the future study of dark matter, which sounds odd, but its lack of dark matter will help scientist understand why it occurs in other places.

Alternatively, in the absence of any direct dark-matter detections, some theorists have suggested its existence is illusory-and that something else drives galaxy evolution and gravitational lensing.

For the first time, astronomers using the Dragonfly Telephoto Array in New Mexico (and eventually the Hubble Space Telescope) discovered a distant galaxy with 400 times less dark matter than expected, which came as a surprise considering that most models of how galaxies form always include large amounts of dark matter.

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This infrared image shows hundreds of thousands of stars crowded into the swirling core of the Milky Way galaxy. "So, finding a galaxy without it is unexpected".

Physicists don't know much about dark matter.

If you look around and out at the stars, what you see - and what astronomers can see using complex telescopes - accounts for just five per cent of what is contained in the universe. Since there's some normal matter here, any version of modified gravity would have that matter produce dark-matter-like effects. This would allow the gas to form stars away from clumps of dark matter.

"Basically, it was the seed for drawing in normal matter", Bauer told Live Science.

In other words, the question arises: if a galaxy did not start from dark matter, which then gravitationally attracted common matter, how did it form? In addition to the dearth of dark matter, DF2 is unusual in another way: it is roughly the size of our Milky Way Galaxy, but contains only 1/200 the number of stars. The image also served as a confirmation that galaxies are interconnected through a cosmic web of dark matter. "That doesn't make it wrong, just really weird".

Most paths to explaining NGC 1052-DF2's formation implicate its galactic neighbors. Sure, MOND doesn't easily explain a galaxy behaving as if there is no missing mass.

"There are ideas out there for forming a dark matter-less galaxy, but none of them fit this particular object very well".

"I don't find that [point of view] at all compelling", Bauer said. How could this galaxy have formed? They discovered this by watching smaller collections of stars, known as globular clusters, orbit the galaxy.

"I have no reason to doubt the data, though I note that there are only 10 objects that contribute to the [speed] measurement", he wrote. These clusters were found to be plodding along more slowly than expected, meaning there's far less mass in that galaxy than would be predicted. "So, this is at the hairy edge of credible". It is classified as an ultra-diffuse galaxy, a kind first recognized in 2015.

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